There are things you can do if your health plan won’t pay for your medical treatment or delays your care.
Health insurance companies can take a number of steps to control their costs. This can mean your health plan won’t cover certain treatments prescribed by your health care provider or the plan requires you to take a number of steps before your treatment is approved.
The good news is there are state and federal laws in place that may protect you from these practices.
To find out if your insurer or PBM may have acted improperly, ask yourself these questions:
Step Therapy Did my insurer make me try a different treatment before covering the medication that my health care provider prescribed?
This practice is called “step therapy” or “fail first” because it requires patients to try other treatments first and show they don’t work. This action may be against federal or state laws if the insurer treats you and others like you differently because of your health condition.
Adverse tiering Do I have to pay either a percentage of the costs or a very large co-pay for my medication?
This practice is called “adverse tiering.” It can be used by insurers to shift a lot of the costs to patients for new drugs to treat chronic conditions like cancer, HIV, and rheumatoid arthritis. However, this action may also violate certain federal and state laws if used in a discriminatory way.
Nonmedical switching Is my insurer forcing me to take a different medication, even though my current medication works well, by refusing to cover it any longer or increasing my co-pay?
This practice is referred to as “nonmedical switching.” It occurs when your insurer forces you to switch from your current medication to a different (but not a generic) drug by either refusing to cover the drug any longer or increasing the out-of-pocket cost of the drug. It can violate certain state consumer protection laws.
Prior authorization Before I can fill or refill a prescription, do I need to get approval from my insurer?
This practice is called “prior authorization.” It happens when the insurer requires you or your health care provider to get approval before the treatment is covered. This step can delay or interrupt care, waste time, and complicate medical decisions. As such, it may also violate state and federal laws.
My insurer refuses to cover a treatment that my health care provider prescribed to me. What can I do?
If you answered yes to any of these questions, there are three steps you can take to change your insurer’s decision:
How do I appeal the decision? If your insurer denies your claim, you have the right to an internal appeal. This means you can ask your insurer to conduct a full and fair review of its decision. To appeal the denial, you should do the following:
What if my insurer denies my coverage on appeal? Under law, you are entitled to take your appeal to an independent third party for an “external review,” which means the insurance company no longer gets the final say over whether to approve a treatment or pay a claim. The situation applies if the insurer denies your appeal or if your medical situation is urgent and waiting would jeopardize your life or ability to function.
You can skip the internal appeals process and request an expedited external review in urgent situations. Your situation is urgent if waiting 30 to 60 days would seriously jeopardize your life or your ability to regain function.
How do I file for an external review? To trigger an external review, file a written request with the independent organization within 60 days of the date your insurer sent you a final decision. The process should take no more than 60 days.
However, in urgent situations, you can ask for an expedited review. The expedited process should take no longer than four business days. To find out whom to contact in your state to request an external review, please go to www.CoverageRights.org.
How do I file a complaint? If there are still problems after the external review process, you can file a complaint with the insurance commissioner or attorney general in your state. To determine whom to contact and how to submit the complaint, please go to www.CoverageRights.org.
Your complaint should include the following information:
You should also submit the following documents as supporting information:
What happens after the insurance commissioner or attorney general receives my complaint? The insurance commissioner or attorney general will assign someone to research, investigate, and resolve your complaint. That person will examine your account, records, documents, and transactions. He or she may question witnesses, request additional documents from other parties, and hold a hearing. If the insurance commissioner or attorney general determines that the insurer violated laws or regulations, he or she may order the insurer to give you the requested coverage or compensate you.
Whom should I call if I have any questions about filing a complaint? To determine whom to call in your state, please go to www.CoverageRights.org.
Disclaimer: This booklet was produced by the Alliance for the Adoption of Innovations in Medicine (Aimed Alliance). Aimed Alliance’s funding sources are disclosed at www.aimedalliance.org/collaborators.
 Paul Sisson, Bill Would Quicken Access to Newer Meds, San Diego Union-Tribune (Oct. 3, 2015). http://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/news/2015/01/03/ab374-chronic-disease/.
 Chad Brooker, Waging War on Specialty Pharmaceutical Tiering in Pharmacy Benefit Design, 7 Health L. & Pol’y Brief 25, 29 (2012-2014).
 Commentary: Time to Reform Costly, Burdensome Prior Authorization and “First Fail” Protocols, Palm Beach Post (Mar. 2, 2014), http://www.palmbeachpost.com/news/news/opinion/commentary-time-to-reform-costly-burdensome-prior-/nd3Zz.
 See, for example, N.M. Admin. Code. 184.108.40.206 (2016).
 Complaint to Federal Government Agency: Patient, Legal Action Center, https://lac.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/10-Patient-Federal-Complaint.docx, last visited Oct. 17, 2016.
 E.g., State of Alabama, Department of Insurance, http://www.aldoi.gov/Consumers/ConsumerServicesBio.aspx, last visited Oct. 17, 2016; Ala. Code Ann. §§ 27-2-7, 27-2-19 (2016).
 Ala. Code Ann. § 27-2-20 (2016).
 Ala. Code Ann. § 27-2-26 (2016).
 Ala. Code Ann. § 27-2-7 (2016).